Humanitude books

Humanitude: Comprendre la vieillesse, prendre soin des hommes vieux
Book in french of Yves Gineste and Jérome Pellisier, about the Philosophy of Care Humanitude

Institutional Documents

PhD Thesis: Caring for humanitude - method Gineste and Marescotti Applied to People admitted to continuing care
Author: Mário Simões 

The increase in demented elderly with pictures of pathological agitation and opposition to care is a growing reality. Currently it is estimated more than 35 million demented elderly people worldwide and to double every 20 years, with costs in excess of 400 billion dollars and with much suffering, including the caregivers who have difficulty dealing with such cases. In Portugal, the elderly population is estimated more than 2 million people. Of which more than 150,000 are living with dementia. Something of high economic and social impact that led to the Decree-Law No. arise 101/2006 June 6 that established the National Network of Integrated Care (RNCCI) for institutionalized support, as well as the Resolution of the Council of Ministers n o 61/2011 of 22 December, which formalized the coordination and functioning of the European Year of Active Ageing in 2012, according to the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, which in 2012 designated the European Year of Active Ageing and Solidarity Intergenerational, to awareness and progress in solving problems inherent. Nursing plays an important role in caring for people with dementia in spaces of intimacy, seeking to promote the ill person worthy of human dignity. However, the action of nurses indicates sometimes a tendency for the removal of relational essential, both in favor of the principles of economy and technology, and by not using care modalities that provide. In France, the method humanitude Care Gineste Marescotti (MGM) appeared to be a valid response. Decreased the frames of agitation and opposition to the care of demented people, promoting them an active posture, improving job satisfaction of caregivers and significantly reducing the rate of absenteeism due to musculoskeletal injuries and burnout. The technical and scientific answer this method motivated the development of an integrated sequence of study in order to apply the MGM in the Central Region of Portugal (RCP). In the first preliminary descriptive study, we applied a questionnaire to a sample of nurses in CPR, with over two years of professional practice, to determine the acceptance of nurses to MGM. Obtained a high level of acceptance both by the importance attributed to cuidativos procedures inherent to the method humanitude as the perception of the prática.No apply the second study, with Associate Action Research approach and training strategy in action (FA) in context real care, proceeded to the application of GMM to an Integrated Continuous care Unit (UCCI) of Coimbra who willingly engage in the project. The situation analysis revealed high level of acceptance, identical to that of nurses CPR, while the results of the previous observation achieved low scores, so there is a high perceived gap between practice and actual practice. The observation of humanitude procedures during AF achieves high scores, reducing slippage between perceived practice and actual practice. Stirring was measured at the beginning and end of FA decreased substantially. In their reports, caregivers show satisfaction with the positive effects on people cared due care become easier and more rewarding. External and internal events disturb the operation of monitoring provided. Nevertheless, evaluative observation conducted six months after the FA reveals that some procedures were well integrated in practice, while others declined, but remaining above the scores achieved in the diagnostic observation. In conclusion the results of this study, consistent with those obtained by the authors of MGM, the data collection instruments created are functional in its application and there relevance implementation of care in humanitude in Portuguese context. 

Published by Catholic University in

Scientific Articles

(Re)Estruturação da resposta de Centro de Dia para Unidade de Humanitude

Master's dissertation of Dr. Pedro Cardoso, Director of  the Centro Social Paroquial de São Jorge de Arroios


In the attempt to find a theoretical model to support the practical day to day life of the Centro Social Paroquial de São Jorge de Arroios, a philosophy of action was met to respond to this yearning - Humanitude-. Choose a conceptual way to answer the questions: who found? Who is found? How to act in this meeting? Thus, responding to questions raised, make an incursion by the concepts of Person, Relationship Help and Care, to get to a Philosophy of Action - Humanitude, in response to the question: what to do? This is a project for the creation of a Day Centre in Humanitude, where is proposed a new concept of Social Response.

Available at:

The concept of humanitude as applied to general nursing care

Autora: Margot Phaneuf, inf., Ph. D.

Nursing is based on various theoretical models all of which aim to deliver quality care, to respect the autonomy and independance of the person, as well as preserve a global vision of the person and their capacities. These models shape various practical applications which create suitable conditions for the organisation of nursing care and a clarification of the role of the nurse vis-à-vis the patient and society. 

However, we need to rekindle the flame which animates our caregiving for who amongst us has not heard critics denouncing their dehumanization. Unfortunately, there is no miracle cure. But perhaps we need to clarify things for caregivers and students and base our actions on certain fundamental concepts about what makes us essentially human, what profoundly determines our needs and the importance of keeping these in mind during health care practices.

There is a simple anthropological concept which may help us do this. It is known as humanitude and was popularized by Yves Gineste and Rosette Marescotti (...).

Published on:

The meaning of philosophy of humanitude, in the context of nursing care to dependent and vulnerable people

Authors: Mário Simões; Manuel Rodrigues; Nidia Willow 

Systematic review following the methodology of the seven steps of the Cochrane Handbook, formulating the following question: What is the integrating significance of humanitude concept in the context of complex and delicate care that nurses provide to vulnerable and dependent people sick? 
In response to the question process following a systematic methodology, based on an exhaustive and refined the relevant databases search strategy, not yielded answers to the descriptors related to nursing care, which intersect the humanitude concept. However, through search and contact with national and international research engines, it was possible to collect a small collection of documents that reveal the relevance of the research question and indicate the existence of advanced work in the application of the philosophy of humanitude to nursing care. The most relevant work is the method of Gineste and Marescotti, caring for dependent and vulnerable patients since 1975. With this scientific review there is a new opportunity for research, through the implementation and monitoring of the method, with a population of sick dependents, in Portugal. 

KEYWORDS: Philosophy of humanitude; nursing care; holistic humanitude. 

Posted by:. Journal of Nursing ReferênciaII Series II.ª Series - No. 7 - Oct 2008.

Importance and applicability to nursing of the method of care in humanitude Gineste - Marescotti®
Authors: Mário Simões; Manuel Rodrigues; Nidia Willow 

Context: The philosophy of care humanitude emphasizes the value of relational link and human factor (Simões Rodrigues and Willow, 2008). Gineste and Marescotti, we highlight the contribution of their method of care humanitude published by Gineste and Pellissier (2007). 
Objectives: To know the importance that nurses attribute to care based on the philosophy and method of humanitude Gineste and Marescotti; Identify the extent to which nurses report that apply in practice the principles of the method and Gineste Marescotti. 
Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted with data collected from a sample of 160 nurses, the population covered by the Regional Section of the Central Association of Nurses and who voluntarily responded to the electronic survey. The data collection instrument developed and validated, is composed of 28 items in the dimensions "tuning approach" and "proação consolidation". 
Results: Respondents indicate nurses be very and extremely important procedures "tuning" approach (90.31%) and "proação consolidation" (85.47%). Only 2.21% devalue the method. In practice care, nurses often say, or always apply the principles of "tuning" approach (83.05%) and "proação consolidation" (69.69%). 
Conclusions: Following an observational strategy in context, we intend to investigate in future research coherence between 
opinion expressed and the actual practice. 

KEYWORDS: philosophy of humanitude; care in humanitude; nursing care; Senior citizens. 

Posted by: Nursing Journal Referência Series III - n ° 4 - Jul 2011.
Caring in humanitude: applied study in continuing care

Authors: Mário Simões; Nídia Salgueiro, Manuel Rodrigues


The first scientific study of the Gineste and Marescotti (MGM) Humanitude method of care was developed in Portugal by Simões, Rodrigues and Salgueiro (2011b). As a follow-up, this action research study involves a team of caregivers and a dependent elderly population hospitalized in a Continuing Care Unit (UCCI), with the aim of developing the skills of caregivers with regard to the application of GMM and assessing the evolution of physical, cognitive and emotional responses of care recipients, according to this method. The measurement instruments include two scales on perception of the value and applicability of MGM, already validated in the previous study, and a grid for systematic direct observation, validated in this study. The results of the initial diagnosis match those of the previous study, indicating a strong perception of the value and clinical application of the sequence of procedures, yet observational data revealed several discrepancies between intention and actual implementation. In this study, we describe, at some length, the course of the first stages of this project. The results of these first cycle actions guide the subsequent one, while following the methodology of Investigation Action Associated (IAA).

Keywords: humanitude; long-term care; research

Published by: Revista de Enfermagem Referência III Série - n.° 6 - Mar. 2012

Impact of the Methodology Care humanitude in reducing agitation and consumption of psychotropic drugs in hospitalized elderly
Authors: João Araújo; Olivia Oliveira; Rafael Alves 

The increasing aging demographics with increased levels of dependency whit chronic and degenerative diseases, poses new challenges to national health systems and to caregivers. Dementias and 
behavioral changes reveal themselves as one of the great difficulties of caregivers, which preferentially use a pharmacological approach to control them. Methodology of Care Gineste-Marescotti 
(MCGM), aka humanitude, is assumed as a non-pharmacological approach that yields health gains, leading to decreased agitation in about 85.7% and decreasing the use of psychotropic drugs in 49.2%. 

KEYWORDS: Agitation, humanitude, Geriatrics, non-pharmacological intervention 

Published in a book of minutes of the 1st International Congress IPLeiria's Health | "Health@ipleiria.cong" - Best practice for a Better Health
Care giving and nursing, work conditions and humanitude
Authors: Sylvain Biquand, Benoit Zittel


Increased lifespan in western societies causes the increase of hospitalization in the old age, notably for patient showing forms of dementia including Alzheimer disease. These patients relate poorly to care givers and nurses, and cases of maltreatment have repeatedly been reported. To prevent abuse and increase patient’s quality of life, Gineste and Pelissier (2007) proposed a philosophy of care based on the Humanitude® concept. Acknowledging that being human is being vertical and related to other humans, the pillars of Humanitude® are gaze, touch, talk, and standing. These modes of relation are systematically developed in care giving techniques derived from the concept. After several studies in geriatric hospitals, to assess psychosocial and ergonomic aspects of work, we present an analysis of the gap between the logic of human care and the logic of hospital organization, impacting employees work conditions and psychological welfare. Care giving is not only a “one to one” relation with the patient but needs to be integrated in the whole organization. Psychologists and ergonomists should be instrumental in defining the project and the organization linking human care giving towards the patients and better work conditions for healthcare employees.

KEYWORDS: work analysis, care, maltreatment, humanitude, burn-out

Published by journal Work n.º41:1

Impacts of humanitude in Portugal
Authors: Joao Araujo, Rafael Alves, Melo Rosa, Cristina Câmara and Pedro Cardoso 

Relationship competencies in health are considered optional, part of a goodwill vocation, and appraisal meetings evaluate mainly technical skills, neglecting quality indicators regarding caregiver-client interaction and relationship satisfaction. However, relationship is fundamental to care and, simultaneously, the main cause of conflicts between health professionals and patients. The method of care of Gineste and Marescotti (mcgm), based on the philosophy of care humanitude (PCH), promotes the professionalisation of care relationships. 
This communication aims to present the impact of mcgm PCH and quality of care in health units where it was implemented during the last three years in Portugal. 
Several care teams, from different health units were trained of this methodolgy of care and key quality and health indicators were evaluated before and after training and monitored during a follow up period, that varied from 3 months to 1 year.  On the communication the speaker will reflect on the need for a paradigm change in health care institutions and the results achieved by this social project.
Three years after the first PhD thesis on humanitude, where they left numerous illustrative information on the positive impact of implementing mcgm and PCH health care units, other scientific studies showed a reduction of 49.12% on the administration of psychotropic drugs and 30.7% of bedridden patients in a medicine ward, a reduction of 63% of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) during care, a reduction of 33% on the falls incidence and a 33% reduction in caregivers absenteeism in a nursing home, a reduction of 14% of dependency levels, a decrease of 40.12% in the refusal of care and a reduction of 41.61% of the BPSD in a home care unit. Furthermore the IGM Portugal was awarded the prize for "Research Quality in Health" by the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and "Good Practices in Social Entrepreneurship" by the Institute for Social Entrepreneurship. 
Relationship competence have been omitted in health education, and so its professionalization has been neglected, misperceived as a vocation or personality trait. However, is positively related to performance indicators such as customer satisfaction and health outcomes, therefore requiring greater efforts at professionalization. 
The completion of the PhD thesis allowed the spread of mcgm PCH and in the context of portuguese care. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this method of care and the positive impact on patients. So mcgm and PCH should be promoted among students, professionals and managers, both nationally and internationally. 
The mcgm and PCH are closely associated with good practice and this seminar addresses them from various perspectives, presenting interesting results about this innovative care tool. 

KEYWORDS: Philosophy of care humanitude, Method-Marescotti Gineste Care, Quality of Care; Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia; Gains in Health 

Published in the conference proceedings of the International Conference of Non-pharmacological Interventions in Alzheimer's disease
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